The success of endodontic treatment depends on effective control of bacterial infection present in the root canal system (RCS), being the primary cause of apical periodontitis. The chemical-mechanical preparation of the RCS plays a fundamental role in eliminating the infection or significantly reducing the bacterial content to a threshold that is insufficient to maintain periradicular disease. Hence, this is the major objective of the chemical-mechanical preparation: to clean, model and disinfect the RCS. However, due to the increasing technological advances in endodontics, this step of the endo treatment is being carried out more and more quickly. We will therefore be focussing on major challenges and strategies for better control of RCS infection with you.